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Fourier Series

1. INTRODUCTION The study of a special type of series whose terms are trigonometric functions of a variable was started in the 18th century when J.B.J. Fourier (1768-1830) was successful in his attempt to prove that an arbitrary function given in the interval $[-\pi,\pi]$ can be expressed under...

Riemann Integral

The story of integration started with I. Newton, when in the late 1660 he invented the method of inverse tangents to find areas under curves. In 1680, G. Leibnitz discovered the process of finding tangent line to find area. Thus, they had discovered the integration, being a process of summation,...

Lebesgue Outer Measure

The Riemann integral of a bounded function over a closed, bounded interval is defined using approximations of the function that are associated with partitions of its domain into finite collections of subintervals. The generalization of the Riemann integral to the Lebesgue integral will be achieved...

Continuity – Calculus

Welcome again to another article!!! This time with a new article in Calculus, and the topic of our journey this time is Continuity; so, after introducing the concept of limits of a function, their properties, and the different operations on limits alongside presenting the indeterminate forms that...

Probability theory – Conditional Probability

Hello again!!! It is time to continue our journey in the field of probability theory; So, after introducing probability theory, the different types of probability and its axioms, and after presenting the basic terminology and how to evaluate the probability of an event in the simplest cases in the...