Introduction to Algebraic Groups One of the most fundamental algebraic structures in mathematics is the group. A group is a set of elements paired with an operation that satisfies the following four conditions: I. It is closed under an operation (represented here by “+”, although it does not...

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## Algebraic Rings

Introduction to Algebraic Rings An algebraic ring is one of the most fundamental algebraic structures. It builds off of the idea of algebraic groups by adding a second operation (For more information please review our article on groups). For rings we often use the notation of addition and...

## Modular Arithmetic & Fermat’s Little Theorem

Modular arithmetic is a way of counting in which the numbers wrap around after reaching a certain value. The clock is often used as an analogy. While time always progresses forward, the 12-hour clock “resets” to 1 after passing 12 (13 o’clock is equivalent to 1 o’clock). If we replace 12 with 0,...

## 10 Ways Tutoring Can Help You

Finding a good math tutor can be essential to your success in school. Tutoring can do much more than just improving math grades. Here are 10 ways in which you can benefit from tutoring. 1. Improve your confidence When working one-on-one outside of the classroom setting, you might find it easier to...

## Find the Vertex by Using the Quadratic Formula

The Quadratic Formula is primarily used to identify the roots (\(x\)-intercepts) of a quadratic function. What many people don't know is that you can also easily find the vertex of the function by simply looking at the Quadratic Formula! Graphing Quadratic Functions When graphing quadratic...

## Completing the Square

Introduction A brief discussion about what completing the square is and what we use it for. Focuses on using the technique for other reasons than solving equations. Background Math Development of the patterns we use for completing the square. This part is important since it introduces the notation...

## Cryptography: How the Internet We Love Almost Never Existed

## Cardinality and Countably Infinite Sets

Cardinality is a term used to describe the size of sets. Set A has the same cardinality as set B if a bijection exists between the two sets. We write this as |A| = |B|. One important type of cardinality is called “countably infinite.” A set A is considered to be countably infinite if a bijection...